Temperature 12k

By Kaufman et al. | April 14, 2020


The Temperature 12k database was compiled to facilitate the study of multidecadal- to millennial-scale changes in climate over the past 12,000 years. This is a dynamic compilation, meaning that new datasets that meet the criteria for inclusion can be added and included in subsequent versions. See the criteria and data submission sections below for details.

PAGES 2k Data Coverage


Data access and LiPDverse visualizations are available here.


A data descriptor for the compilation was published in Scientific Data and is available here.

Criteria for inclusion

The complete criteria for inclusion are described in the Scientific Data Descriptor, but in short: To be included in the Temperature 12k compilation, a dataset must meet several criteria:

  1. Temperature sensitivity Only those proxy records that have a demonstrated relation with temperature were included. Because most of the paleotemperature time series are not sufficiently resolved temporally to meaningfully compare with instrumental-based observations, this demonstration of temperature sensitivity is typically based on accepted understanding of the proxy systems.

  2. Record duration Records must span a minimum continuous duration of 4000 years anytime within the past 12,000 years.

  3. Record resolution The median resolution of must finer than 400 years.

For some records, the cut-off values for duration and resolution can be relaxed to improve the global coverage of the data network, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.

  1. Chronological accuracy We selected records that are supported by age control points with minimum spacing of 3000 years over the record duration or within the past 12,000 years. Records with gaps longer than 3000 years were accepted in data-poor regions, or for sequences that are supported by a relatively high frequency of ages (typically five or more over the Holocene).

  2. Peer-review Only records described in manuscripts that have undergone peer-review are considered for selection. For new records, a dataset can be admitted upon acceptance of the paper – it is not necessary to wait for full publication.

Adding data to this compilation

If you’re interested in adding a dataset to Temperature 12k compilation, whether it’s a new study you’re involved with, or an older record that was previously overlooked or unavailable, follow these steps:

  1. Check that the data meet the criteria for inclusion in the study
  2. If the dataset is not already formatted as a LiPD file, please do so using the interactive web tool at LiPD.net, and download the resulting file
  3. Upload the data to the lipd.net playground, check that the file validates, then click the “submit to LiPDverse” button. In the form, note that you’d like the dataset to be included in the Temperature 12k Temperature compilation.

For more information, take a look at the frequently asked questions.

Long-term archival

The Temeperature 12k data are archived at the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, and are available here.