By Jonkers et al. | May 11, 2020


The PalMod data compilation is a multi-parameter marine palaeoclimate data synthesis that contains time series spanning 0 to 130,000 years ago. The compilation includes only time series for which a robust chronology based on benthic foraminifera \(\delta^{18}O\) and radiocarbon dating is available. Version 1.0.0 of the data product contains 896 time series from 143 individual sites, each associated with rich metadata, age–depth model ensembles, and information to refine and update the chronologies. Those 896 timeseries are comprised of 205 benthic foraminifera \(\delta^{18}O\) records; 169 of benthic foraminifera \(\delta^{13}C\); 131 of seawater temperature; 174 and 119 of planktonic foraminifera \(\delta^{18}O\) and \(\delta^{13}C\); and 44, 38 and 16 of carbonate, organic carbon and biogenic silica content, respectively.

PalMod data coverage


Data access and LiPDverse visualizations are available here.


A data descriptor for the compilation was published in Earth System Science Data and is available here.

How to cite this compilation

Jonkers, L., Cartapanis, O., Langner, M., McKay, N., Mulitza, S., Strack, A., and Kucera, M.: Integrating palaeoclimate time series with rich metadata for uncertainty modelling: strategy and documentation of the PalMod 130k marine palaeoclimate data synthesis, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1053–1081,, 2020.

Criteria for inclusion

The complete criteria for inclusion are described in the manuscript, but in short: To be included in the PalMod compilation, a dataset must meet several criteria:

  1. Marine paleoclimate data comparable with model output

The high-priority selection includes both physically and biogeochemically relevant parameters, of which some are based on measurements that can be compared with climate model output using (forward proxy) models (e.g. benthic \(\delta^{18}O\)) and others represent inferred parameters that can be compared with model output more directly but for which proxy models are still in their infancy (e.g. temperature based on foraminifera Mg∕Ca).

Included variables

Only variables listed here were included:

  1. Record resolution and duration e prioritized processing time series that we estimated to contain at least 50 data points within the 130,000-year timeframe

  2. Chronology , Palmod standardized all chronologies by combining absolute ages (radiocarbon ages, tephra layers and palaeomagnetic events) with \(\delta^{18}O\) stratigraphy. As a result, the age models may differ from those reported in the original publication(s). This does not mean that the updated age models are better (constrained), but they are constructed in a way that allows for applicability and consistency across the synthesis. Only datasets that had sufficient \(^{14}C\) and benthic \(\delta^{18}O\) datasets to develop a robust chronology were included.

  3. Publically archived data Only datasets that were publicly archived through Pangaea or the World Data Service for Paleoclimatology FTP site for marine data were considered for inclusion.

Long-term archival

The PalMod compilation is archived at Pangaea, and are available here.